Hasler, B. S., Landau, D., Hasson, Y., Schori-Eyal, N., Giron, J., Levy, J., Halperin, E., & Friedman, D. (accepted). Virtual reality-based conflict resolution: The impact of immersive 360° video on changing view points and moral judgment in the context of violent intergroup conflict. To appear in New Media & Society, 2020.‏

Link: D. Friedman, book review of Brain art: Brain-computer interfaces for artistic expression, A. Nijholt (ed), review in Brain Computer Interfaces, 2020.‏

Link: Sadka, O., Giron, J., Friedman, D., Zuckerman, O., & Erel, H. (2020, April). Virtual-reality as a Simulation Tool for Non-humanoid Social Robots. In Extended Abstracts of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1-9).‏


Link: Keren Or Berkers, Algorithmic Induction of Physiological States: First Steps, MSc Thesis, IDC School of Computer Science, 2019.

Link: Y. Hasson, N. Schori-Eyal, D. Landau, B. S. Hasler, J. Levy, D. Friedman, and E. Halperin, The enemy's gaze: Immersive virtual environments enhance peace promoting attitudes and emotions in violent intergroup conflicts. PloS one, 4(9), 2019.

Link: Y. R. Chen, G. E. Birnbaum, J. Giron, and D. Friedman. Individuals in a Romantic Relationship Express Guilt and Devaluate Attractive Alternatives after Flirting with a Virtual Bartender. in Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents (pp. 62-64). ACM. Paris, July 2019.

Link: O. Cohen, D. Doron, M. Koppel, R. Malach, D. Friedman. High Performance BCI in Controlling an Avatar Using the Missing Hand Representation in Long Term Amputees, in Brain-Computer Interface Research: A State-of-the-Art Summary, Springer, pp. 93-101, 2019.


Link: D. Friedman and C. Kotzen. Immersive journalism: The new narrative. in Robot Journalism: Can Human Journalism Survive?, World Scientific, pp. 79-92, 2018.

Link: O. Cohen, M. Koppel, R. Malach, D. Friedman, A General Purpose Machine-Learning Tool for Real-Time fMRI Whole-Brain Pattern Classification, in International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN), pp. 1-8. Rio, Brazil, July, 2018.

Link: K. Berkers, J. Giron and D. Friedman, Algorithmic Induction of Physiological State: First Steps, LLARLA Workshop in IJCAI/ICML, Stockholm, Sweden, July 2018.


Link: O. Tal, D. Friedman, Using Recurrent Neural Networks for P300-based Brain-Computer Interface, to appear in Proc 7th Graz BCI Int'l Conf, Graz, Austria, September, 2017.

Link: O. Cohen, D. Doron, M. Koppel, R. Malach, D. Friedman, High performance in brain-computer interface control of an avatar using the missing hand representation in long term amputees, Proc. 8th Intl IEEE EMBS Conf Neural Eng, 403-406, Shanghai, China, May 2017.

Link: D. Friedman, A. M. Brouwer, A. Nijholt. BCIforReal: An application-Oriented Approach to BCI Out of the Laboratory. in Proc. 22nd Int'l Conf. Intelligent User Interfaces Companion (IUI '17 Companion). 5-7. Limassol, Cyprus, March, 2017.


Link: S. Kishore, X. Navarro Muncunill, P. Bourdin, K. Or-Berkers, D. Friedman, M. Slater, Multi-Destination Beaming: Apparently Being in Three Places at Once Through Robotic and Virtual Embodiment, Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 3(65), 2016.

Link: D. Friedman, B. Hasler, The Beaming proxy: Towards virtual clones for communication, in Human Computer Confluence: Advancing our Understanding of the Emerging Symbiotic Relation between Humans and Computing Devices, Versita, pp. 156-174, 2016.

Link: M. Ramot, S. Grossman, D. Friedman, R. Malach, Covert NeuroFeedback without awareness shapes cortical network spontaneous connectivity, Proc National Academy of Sciences, 201516857, 2016.


Link: D. Friedman, S. Shapira, L. Jacobson, M. Gruberger, A data-driven validation of EEG frontal asymmetry using a consumer device, 4th International Workshop on Affective Brain Computer Interfaces, Xian, China, August, 2015.

Link: R. Pizarro, K. Berkers, M. Slater, D. Friedman, How to time travel in highly immersive virtual reality, Proc. ICAT-EGVE, , 117-124, Kyoto, Japan, Septemeber, 2015.

Link: D. Friedman, Brain-computer interface control of virtual reality, Handbook of Digital Games and Entertainment Technologies, Ryohei Nakatsu, Matthias Rauterberg and Paolo Ciancarini (eds), Springer, 2015.

Link: T. Harmelech, D. Friedman, and R. Malach, Differential Magnetic Resonance Neurofeedback modulations across Extrinsic (Visual) and Intrinsic (Default-Mode) nodes of the human cortex, The Journal of Neuroscience, 35(6), 2588-2595, 2015.

D. Friedman, Virtual time travel: How to go back in time, kill your grandparents, and get back alive, 21st Annual Conf. Towards a Science of Consciousness, Helsinki, Finland, 2015.


Link: B. Hasler, T. Shani, G. Hirschberger, D. Friedman, Virtual Peacemakers: Mimicry Increases Empathy in Simulated Contact with Virtual Outgroup Members, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17.12, 766-771, 2014.

Link: Y. Amichai-Hamburger, A. Klome Brunstein, D. Friedman, O. Zuckerman, T. Shani, The Future of Online Therapy, Computers in Human Behavior, in press, 2014.

Link: O. Cohen, S. Druon, S. Lengagne, A. Mendelsohn, R. Malach, A. Kheddar, D. Friedman, fMRI-based robotic embodiment: Controlling a a humanoid robot by thought using real-time fMRI, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 23(3): 229-241, 2014.

D. Friedman, C. Guger, Special issue on Robots, Virtual Reality and Neurofeedback in Telepresence, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, special issue, 2014.

Link: J. Giron, M. Segal, D. Friedman, Implicit learning of SSVEP based brain computer interface, The 6th Int'l Brain-Computer Interface Conference, Graz, Austria, Septemeber, 2014.

Link: O. Cohen, M. Ramot, R. Malach, M. Koppel, D. Friedman, A generic machine learning tool for online whole brain classification for fMRI, The 6th Int'l Brain-Computer Interface Conference, Graz, Austria, Septemeber, 2014.

B. S. Hasler, D. Friedman, T. Shani Sherman, and G. Hirschberger, Interacting with virtual Palestinians: Mimicry, empathy, and prejudice. Paper presented at the the Annual Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology (ISPP), Rome, Italy, July, 2014.

Link: D. Friedman, R. Pizarro, K. Or-Berkers, S. Neyret, X. Pan4 a M. Slater, A method for generating an illusion of backwards time travel using immersive virtual reality - an exploratory study, Front. Psychol. | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00943, 2014.

Link: J. Giron, and D. Friedman. Eureka: Realizing That an Application is Responding to Your Brainwaves. Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design and Development Methods for Universal Access. Springer International Publishing, 495-502. 2014.

Link: O. Cohen, M. Koppel, R. Malach and D. Friedman, Controlling an Avatar by Thought using real-time fMRI, accepted to J. of Neural Engineering, 2014.

Link: B. Hasler, O. Salomon, P. Tuchman, A. Lev-Tov, D. Friedman, Real-time Gesture Translation in Intercultural Communication, Artificial Intelligence & Society, pp. 1-11, 2014.

Ratan, R., & Hasler, B. S. (2014). Playing well with virtual classmates: Relating avatar design to group satisfaction. In Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW 2014), Baltimore, USA, February 15-19, 2014.


Link: B. S. Hasler, P. Tuchman, and D. Friedman, Virtual Research Assistants: Replacing Human Interviewers by Automated Avatars in Virtual Worlds, Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1608-1616, 2013.

B. Hasler and Y. Amichai-Hamburger. (accepted). Online intergroup contact. To appear in Y. Amichai-Hamburger (Ed.), The social net. Human behavior in cyberspace (2nded), New York: Oxford University Press.

Link: D. Friedman, O. Salomon, B. Hasler, Virtual substitute teacher: Introducing the concept of the classroom proxy, Proceedings of the 3rd European Immersive Education Summit (iED), pages 186-197, London, UK, November 2013.

Schmeil, A., Hasler, B., Peachey, A., de Freitas, S., Nehmzow, C. (2013). Do virtual worlds support engaging social conferencing? In M. Childs & A. Peachey (Eds.), Understanding learning in virtual worlds (pp. 165-179). London: Springer, Human-Computer Interaction Series.


Labhart, N., Hasler, B. S., Zbinden, A., & Schmeil, A. (2013). The ShanghAI Lectures: A global education project on artificial intelligence. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 18, 2542-2555.

Schmeil, A., & Hasler, B. S. (2012). Designing for effective collaboration experiences in virtual worlds. In Proceedings of the Seventh IASTED Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI 2012), Baltimore, USA, May 14-16, 2012.

Gilbert, R. L., & Hasler, B. S. (2012). Psychology of Immersive Environments Technology Working Group (PIE.TWG) CHARTER. Journal of Immersive Education, 1(1). Link: Read Online

A. Lavie-Dinur, Y. Karniel, and D. Friedman, Global warming on Second Life: The public sphere and free discussion in collaborative virtual environments. International journal of Environment, Ecology, Family and Urban Studies, Vol. 2, Issue 3.pp. 61-78, 2012.

Link: A. Steed, W. Steptoe, W. Oyekoya, F. Pece, T. Weyrich, J. Kautz, D. Friedman, A. Peer, M. Buss, M. Solazzi, F. Tecchia, M. Bergamasco, A. Frisoli, M. Sanchez-Vives, M. Reiner, G. Ruffini, M. Harder, G. Sz?kely, B. Cohen, D. Hammersh?i, M. Slater, Beaming: An asymmetric telepresence system, to appear in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 2012.

B. S. Hasler and D. Friedman, Sociocultural conventions in avatar-mediated nonverbal communication: A cross-cultural analysis of virtual proxemics. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research(special issue on Intercultural New Media Research), 41(3), 239-260, 2012.

Link: O. Cohen, S. Druon, S. Lengagne, A. Mendelsohn, R. Malach, A. Kheddar, D. Friedman, fMRI-based robotic embodiment: A pilot study, IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, June 24-27, Roma, Italy. 2012.

Y. Karniel, A. Lavie Dinur, D. Friedman, Global Warming on Second Life: The Public Sphere and Free Discussion in Collaborative Virtual Environments, in Media in the Swirl, R. D. Dhar, P. Rana, Eds, pp. 65-77, Pentagon Press, 2012.


Link: O. Cohen, A. Mendelsohn, D. Drai, R. Malach, D. Friedman. Controlling an avatar by thought using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging, abstract published special issue of the  Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, and Proceedings of the 20th Israeli Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. Eilat, Dec. 2011.

Link: D. Friedman, P. Tuchman. Virtual clones: Data-driven social navigation. Paper to be presented in:  proc. of the 11th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents. pp-28-34, Iceland, 2011.

Link: D. Friedman, B. Hasler, A. Brovman, P. Tuchman. Bots in our midst: Communicating with automated agents in online virtual worlds. Poster presented at:  the 11th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents. pp 441-442. Reykjavik, Iceland, 2011.

R. Ratan, B. Hasler.Designing the virtual self: How psychological connections to avatars may influence education-related outcomes of use. Paper presented at the First European Immersive Education Summit. Madrid, Spain, 2011.

Link: B. Hasler, O. Salomon, P. Tuchman, A. Nae O’Malley, D. Friedman. Real-time translation of nonverbal communication in cross-cultural online encounters. Paper presented at:  The International Workshop on Culturally Motivated Virtual Characters. Reykjavik, Iceland, 2011.

B. Hasler and D. Friedman . Spatial behavior in virtual worlds: Two field studies on inter-avatar distance. Paper presented at the 2011 Conference of the International Communication Association, Boston, MA, USA, 2011.

Link: N. Labhart, A. Zbinden, A. Schmeil and B. Hasler. The ShanghAI Lectures: A case study in global education. Paper presented at the Immersive Education Summit, Boston College, MA, USA, 2011.

Link: N. Labhart  and B. Hasler. The ShanghAI Lectures: Connecting continents in cyberspace, In: Proceedings of the European Future Technologies Conference and Exhibition, Budapest, Hungary, 2011.

Link: A. Schmeil, B. Hasler, S. de Freitas, A. Peachy and C. Nehmzow. Social collaborative conferencing in the virtual world. In Proceedings of Researching Learning in Immersive Virtual Environments (ReLIVE11), The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 2011.

Link: B. Hasler. Intercultural collaborative learning in virtual worlds. In R. Hinrichs & C. Wankel (Eds.), Transforming virtual world learning. Cutting-edge technologies in higher education. (Vol 4, pp. 271-310). Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing, 2011.


Link: D. Friedman, R. Leeb, G. Pfurtscheller, M. Slater. Human-Computer interface issues in controlling virtual reality with brain-computer interface, Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Journal, vol. 25, pp 67-93, 2010.

Link: N. de la Pena, P. Weil, J. Llobera, E. Giannopoulos, A. Pomes, B. Spanlang, D. Friedman, M. V. Sanchez-Vives and M. Slater. Immersive Journalism: Immersive Virtual Reality for the First Person Experience of News, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol 19, No.4, pp 291-301, 2010.

Link: A. R. Ratan and B. Hasler. Exploring self-presence in collaborative virtual teams. PsychNology Journal, 8, pp 11-31, 2010.

D. Friedman. Virtual embodied intelligence: Following the embodied-intelligence approach in online virtual worlds, abstract in: Frontiers in Neuroscience, special issue from the Body Representation in Physical and Virtual Reality with Applications to Rehabilitation, Ascona, Switzerland, 2010.

A. Schmeil, M. Steinbusch, A. Jost, M. Henn, M. Jacobi, M. Schwitalla and B. Hasler. A refined workflow for designing virtual worlds for collaborative learning, In:  Proceedings of VS Games 2010, Braga, Portugal, 2010.

Link: B. Hasler .Report on research and evaluation. In T. Buecheler, N. Labhart, & B. Rowland (Eds.), The ShanghAI Lectures 2009: How to conduct a global technology-supported academic lecture. Final project report .Zurich: Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Zurich, pp 61-81, 2010.


Link: D. Friedman, A. Donenfeld, E. Zafran. Neurophysiology-based art in immersive virtual reality, Int'l J. of Arts and Technology, Vol 2, No. 4, pp 331-347, 2009.

Link: D. Friedman, Y. Karniel, A. Lavie-Dinur. Comparing group discussion in virtual and physical environments, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp 286-293, 2009.

Link: B. Hasler, R. Pfeifer, A. Zbinden, P. Wyss, S. Zaugg, R. Dieh and B. Joho. 'Annotated Lectures': Student-instructor interaction in large-scale global education. Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Vol. 7 (5), 2009.

Link: C. Driesbach, R. Walton, B. Kolko, A. Seidakmatova. Asking Internet users to explain non-use in Kyrgyzstan. Professional Communication Conference,  IPCC 2009, IEEE International, 2009.

Link: B. Hasler,T. Buecheler and R. Pfeifer. Collaborative work in 3D virtual environments: A research agenda and operational framework. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, San Diego, CA, USA, 2009.

Link: B. Hasler, V. Guerra, N. Labhart, A. Zbinden and R. Pfeifer. 'The ShanghAI Lectures': Using virtual worlds for intercultural student collaboration. Demonstration at the ACM Workshop on Intercultural Collaboration, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA, 2009.

B. Hasler, R. Pfeifer, A. Zbinden, P. Wyss, S. Zaugg, R. Dieh and B. Joho. Annotated Lectures: Student-instructor interaction in large-scale global education, In: Proceedings of the 13th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, FL, USA, 2009.

B. Hasler, R. Pfeifer, A. Zbinden, P. Wyss, S. Zaugg, R. Dieh and B. Joho .'Annotated Lectures': Student-instructor interaction in large-scale global education. Paper presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Academic Globalization, Orlando, FL, USA, 2009.

Link: A. R. Ratan and B. Hasler. Self-Presence standardized: Introducing the self-presence questionnaire (SPQ). In Proceedings of PRESENCE 2009, The 10th Annual International Workshop on Presence, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2009.

B. Hasler,T. Buecheler and R. Pfeifer. Collaborative work in 3D virtual environments: A research agenda and operational framework. In A. A. Ozok & P. Zaphiris (Eds.), Online Communities, Lecture Notes in Computer Science , Berlin: Springer, Vol. 5621, pp 23-32, 2009.


Link: M. Garau, D. Friedman, H. R. Widenfeld, A. Antley, A. Brogni. Temporal and Spatial Variations in Presence: Qualitative Analysis of Interviews from an Experiment on Breaks in Presence, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp 293-309, 2008.

B. Hasler. Gendered avatars: When gender judgments influence performance ratings. Paper presented at the International Conference on Reality Shift in Media "When Media Environments Become Real", University of Bern, Switzerland, 2008.


Link: D. Friedman, R. Leeb, A. Antley, M. Garau, C. Guger, C. Keinrath, A. Steed, G. Pfurtscheller, and M. Slater. Navigating virtual reality by thought: What is it like?, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp 100-110, 2007.

Link: B. Hasler, B. Kersten and  J. Sweller. Learner control, cognitive load and instructional animation. Applied Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 21, pp 713-729, 2007

Link: G. Pfurtscheller , R. Leeb, D. Friedman, and M. Slater. Centrally controlled heart rate changes during mental practice in immersive virtual environment: A case study with a tetraplegic, Intl. J. of Psychophysiology, Vol. 68, No, 1, pp 1-5, 2007.

Link: C. Guger, R. Leeb, D. Friedman, V. Vinayagamoorthy, A. Antley, G. Edlinger, and M. Slater. Controlling virtual environments by thought, Proc. HCI Int'l 2007 (LNCS), Beijing, China, 2007.

Link: D. Friedman, A. Steed, M. Slater. Research Bots in Second Life, Workshop on Simulation and Second Life, in: Second Life,  2007.

Link: D. Friedman, R. Leeb, L. Dikovsky, M. Reiner, G. Pfurtscheller, M. Slater. Controlling a virtual body by thought in a highly-immersive virtual environment - a case study in using a brain-computer interface in a virtual-reality cave-like system, in: Proc. of the Second International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications, Barcelona, Spain, Vol. AS/IE, pp 83-90, 2007.

B. Hasler and B. Meier. Learner control and learners' confidence in instructional animation: Exploring the "false confidence" hypothesis. Paper presented at the 12th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, Budapest, Hungary, 2007.

B. Hasler, R. Hirsig, J. Aeppli, I. Sterzinger and  P. realSTAT: A problem-based learning tool. Poster presented at the 10th Congress of the Swiss Society of Psychology, Zurich, Switzerland, 2007.

Link: R. Leeb, D. Friedman, G. Muller-Putz, R. Scherer, M. Slater, and G. Pfurtscheller. Self-paced (asynchronous) BCI control of a wheelchair in Virtual Environments: A case study with a tetraplegic, Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience: special issue - Brain-Computer Interfaces: Towards Practical Implementations and Potential Applications, doi:10.1155/2007/79642, 2007.
Link: Read Online

Link: D. Friedman, A. Steed, and M. Slater. Spatial social behavior in Second Life, in: Proc. Intelligent Virtual Agents LNAI 4722, Pelachaud et al. (eds), Paris, France, pp 252—263 ,2007. (short-listed for best paper award).

Link: D. Friedman, K. Suji, M. Slater. SuperDreamCity: An immersive virtual reality experience that responds to electrodermal activity, in: Proc. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction LNCS 4738, Paiva, Prada, and Picard (eds.), Lisbon, Portugal, pp 570-581, 2007.

Link: R. Leeb, R. Scherer, D. Friedman, F. Lee, C. Keinrath, H. Bischof, M. Slater, and G. Pfurtscheller. Combining BCI and Virtual Reality: Scouting Virtual Worlds, in:  Towards Brain-Computer Interfacing, G. Dornhege, R. Millan Jdel, T. Hinterberger, D. J. McFarland, and K. R. M?ller, pp 393-407,  MIT Press, 2007.